Presenter: Fan Wu
Paper: Influence of Environment and Lifestyle on Incidence and Progress of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in A German ALS Population
Authors: Sonja Korner, Johanna Kammeyer, Antonia Zapf, Magdalena Kuzma-Kozakiewicz, Maria
Piotrkiewicz, Bożenna Kuraszkiewicz, Hanna Goszczynska, Marta Gromicho, Julian
Grosskreutz, Peter M. Andersen, Mamede de Carvalho, Susanne Petri
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease mainly affecting upper and
lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Pathogenesis of ALS is still unclear, and a multifactorial etiology is presumed. The remarkable clinical heterogeneity between different phenotypes of ALS patients suggests that environmental and lifestyle factors could play a role in onset and progression of ALS. We analyzed a cohort of 117 ALS patients and 93 controls. ALS patients and controls were compared regarding physical activity, dietary habits, smoking, residential environment, potentially toxic environmental factors and profession before symptom onset and throughout the disease course. Data were collected by a personal interview. For statistical analysis descriptive statistics, statistical tests and analysis of variance were used. ALS patients and controls did not differ regarding smoking, diet and extent of physical training. No higher frequency of toxic influences could be detected in the ALS group. ALS patients lived in rural environment considerably more often than the control persons, but this was not associated with a higher percentage of occupation in agriculture. There was also a higher percentage of university graduates in the ALS group. Patients with bulbar onset were considerably more often born in an urban environment as compared to spinal onset. Apart from education and environment, ALS phenotypes did not differ in any investigated environmental or life-style factor. The rate of disease progression was not influenced by any of the investigated environmental and life-style factors. The present study could not identify any dietary habit, smoking, physical activity, occupational factor as well as toxic influences as risk factor or protective factor for onset or progression of ALS. Living in rural environment and higher education might be associated with higher incidence of ALS.
The Department of Environmental and Occupational Health presents:
“Zinc homeostasis in the lung in health and disease”
Bruce R. Pitt, PhD
Professor, Environmental and Occupational Health
Professor, Pharmacology and Chemical Biology
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health
Graduate School of Public Health
University of Pittsburgh
Friday, January 31, 2020
1:00 pm – 2:00 pm
Conference Room 1155 - Public Health
Presented by Beth L. Roman, associate professor of human genetics, member of the Heart, Lung, and Blood Vascular Medicine Institute, and basic research director, HHT Center.
Presenter: Jenna Kuhn
Paper: Organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos intake promotes obesity and insulin resistance through impacting gut and gut microbiota
Authors: Yiran Liang, Jing Zhan, Donghui Liu, Mai Luo, Jiajun Han, Xueke Liu, Chang Liu, Zheng Cheng, Zhiqiang Zhou, and Peng Wang
Disruption of the gut microbiota homeostasis may induce low-grade inflammation leading to obesity-associated diseases. A major protective mechanism is to use the multi-layered mucus structures to keep a safe distance between gut epithelial cells and microbiota. To investigate whether pesticides would induce insulin resistance/obesity through interfering with mucus-bacterial interactions, we conducted a study to determine how long-term exposure to chlorpyrifos affected C57Bl/6 and CD-1 (ICR) mice fed high- or normal-fat diets. To further investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos-altered microbiota, antibiotic treatment and microbiota transplantation experiments were conducted.
The results showed that chlorpyrifos caused broken integrity of the gut barrier, leading to increased lipopolysaccharide entry into the body and finally low-grade inflammation, while genetic background and diet pattern have limited influence on the chlorpyrifos-induced results. Moreover, the mice given chlorpyrifos-altered microbiota had gained more fat and lower insulin sensitivity.
Our results suggest that widespread use of pesticides may contribute to the worldwide epidemic of inflammation-related diseases.
Presenter: Omar Tahtamooni
Paper: All-cause mortality risk associated with long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 in China: a cohort study
Authors: Tiantian Li, Yi Zhang, Jiaonan Wang, Dandan Xu, Zhaoxue Yin, Huashuai Chen, Yuebin Lv, Jiesi Luo, Yi Zeng, Yang Liu, Patrick L Kinney, Xiaoming S
Background Evidence from cohort studies in North America and Europe indicates that long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM₂·₅) is associated with an increased mortality risk. However, this association has rarely been quantified at higher ambient concentrations. We estimated the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality from longterm exposure to PM₂·₅ in a well established Chinese cohort of older adults.
Methods The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) is a prospective cohort study of men and women aged 65 years and older enrolled in 2008 and followed up through 2014 for mortality events. We studied individuals for whom residential locations were available in 2008 for linkage to 1 km grids of PM₂·₅ concentrations, derived from satellite remote sensing. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of long-term exposure to PM₂·₅ on all-cause mortality, controlling for age, sex, smoking status, drinking status, physical activity, body-mass index, household income, marital status, and education. We then used our results to estimate premature mortality related to PM₂·₅ exposure in the population aged 65 years and older in China in 2010.
Findings 13 344 individuals in the CLHLS cohort had data for all timepoints, yielding follow-up data for 49 440 person-years. In a 3-year window, these individuals were exposed to a median PM₂·₅ concentration of 50∙7 μg/m³ (range 6∙7–113∙3). The overall HR for a 10 μg/m³ increase in this value was 1∙08 (95% CI 1∙06–1∙09). In stratified analyses, HRs were higher in rural than in urban locations, in southern versus northern regions, and with exposure to lower versus higher PM₂·₅ concentrations. Based on the overall HR, we estimated that 1 765 820 people aged 65 years and older in China in 2010 had premature mortality related to PM₂·₅ exposure.
Interpretation Long-term exposure to PM₂·₅ is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality among adults aged 65 years and older in China, but the magnitude of the risk declines as the concentration of PM₂·₅ increases
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Last Updated On Friday, January 4, 2019 by Orbell, Adam W
Created On Friday, January 4, 2019
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