Balasubramani K Goundappa, PhD

Research Associate Professor, Clinical and Translational Sciences, Epidemiology


Epidemiology Data Center, 4420 Bayard Street, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15260
R-znvy: onyntx@rqp.cvgg.rqh
Primary Phone: 967-193-7170
Fax: 967-179-8220

Personal Statement

Design and analysis of multi-center clinical trials are my primary research interests. I am currently coordinating a multi-center trial of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma for the COAST trial. I am also coordinating the Data Management and Statistics core for the CDC’s networks for outpatient, inpatient adult’s influenza vaccine effectiveness, and new vaccine surveillance network. The only place in the country of having all three CDC influenza vaccine trials. The trial network has the recognition of influencing national and international influenza vaccine policy for the northern hemisphere vaccine a year and a half ago.


1995 | University of Western Ontario, Canada | Post-Doctoral Training in Actuarial Statistics
1992 | University of Madras, India | Doctor of Philosophy, Statistics
1987 | University of Madras, India | Masters of Philosophy, Statistics
1986 | University of Madras, India | Masters of Science, Statistics
1984 | Presidency College, India | Bachelor's of Science, Statistics

Young Statistician Award

Received an Award from International Statistical Institute, The Netherlands.   Work on " Markov Sampling for finite populations".


My research focused on statistical and epidemiological investigations of large multicenter clinical trials. My current research interest  is in the development and application of statistical methodologies are on (i) Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma, (ii) Vaccine Effectiveness of Influenza and other respiratory virus infections in outpatients and inpatients with medically attended acute respiratory infection, and (iii) To improve strategies for the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).




1. Clarifying the Optimal Application of SLT (COAST) Trial. Role: Principal Investigator. Funding Agency: NIH-UG1EY031651.   Period: September 01, 2020 - August 31, 2027.

2. Enhanced Surveillance for New Vaccine Preventable Disease – The New Vaccine  Surveillance  Network (NVSN). Role: Epidemiology Data center Lead and Co- Investigator. Funding Agency: CDC. Period: September 01, 2021 - August 31, 2026. 

3. Development of innovative Methods, tools, and strategies to evaluate VE in preventing outpatient, laboratory-confirmed illness. Role: Epidemiology Data Center Lead and Co-Investigator. Funding Agency: CDC  Period: October 01, 2021 - September 30, 2022.

4. Impact of flublok in UPMC Electronic Health Records. Role: Epidemiology Data Center Lead and Co- Investigator. Funding Agency: Sanofi Pasture Inc.,. Period: September 01, 2021 - August 31, 2023.  

5.  Vaccine Treatment Evaluation Unit (VTEU). Role:  Epidemiology Data Center Lead and Co- Investigator. Funding Agency: NIAID. Period: July 15, 2020 - November 30, 2023.              

Selected Publications

Complete List of Published Work in My Bibliography over 125 peer-reviewed publications:



Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Research



Nowalk MP, D'Agostino HEA, Zimmerman RK, Saul SG, Susick M, Raviotta JM, Sax TM, Balasubramani GK. Agreement among sources of adult influenza vaccination in the age of immunization information systems. Vaccine. 2021 Oct 26: S0264-410X(21)01372-4. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.10.041.PMID: 34716041.

Kim SS, Chung JR, Belongia EA, McLean HQ, King JP, Nowalk MP, Zimmerman RK, Balasubramani GK, Martin ET, Monto AS, Lamerato LE, Gaglani M, Smith ME, Dunnigan KM, Jackson ML, Jackson LA, Tenforde MW, Verani JR, Kobayashi M, Schrag S, Patel MM, Flannery B. mRNA Vaccine Effectiveness against COVID-19 among Symptomatic Outpatients Aged ≥16 Years in the United States, February - May 2021. J Infect Dis. 2021 Sep 8:jiab451. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiab451.PMID: 34498052.


Griggs EP, Flannery B, Foppa IM, Gaglani M, Murthy K, Jackson ML, Jackson LA, Belongia EA, McLean HQ, Martin ET, Monto AS, Zimmerman RK, Balasubramani GK, Chung JR, Patel M, Us Flu Ve Investigators. Role of Age in Spread of Influenza, 2011-2019, U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network. Am J Epidemiol. 2021 Jul 16:kwab205. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwab205. PMID: 34274963.


Balasubramani GK, Zimmerman RK, Eng H, Lyons J, Clarke L, Nowalk MP. Comparison of local influenza vaccine effectiveness using two methods. Vaccine. 2021 Feb 22; 39(8): 1283-1289.  PMID: 33485643. 


Hughes K, Middleton DB, Nowalk MP, Balasubramani GK, Martin ET, Gaglani M, Talbot HK, Patel MM, Ferdinands JM, Zimmerman RK, Silveira FP; HAIVEN Study Investigators: Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccine for Preventing Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza Hospitalizations in Immunocompromised Adults..Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 3:ciaa1927. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1927. PMID: 33388741.


Zimmerman RK, Nowalk MP, Bear T, Taber R, Clarke KS, Sax TM, Eng H, Clarke LG, Balasubramani GK. Proposed clinical indicators for efficient screening and testing for COVID-19 infection using Classification and Regression Trees (CART) analysis. Human Vaccines and  Immunotherapeutics. 2021 April; 17(4); 1109-1112. PMID: 33079625.


Balasubramani G.K., Won Suk Choi, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Richard K Zimmerman, Brendan Flannery, Manish Patel, Jessie R. Chung, Arnold S. Monto, Emily T. Martin, Edward A. Belongia, Huong Q. McLean, Manjusha Gaglani, Kempapura Murthy, Michael L. Jackson, Lisa A. Jackson, Sarah Spencer, Alicia M. Fry, and the U.S. Flu VE Network Investigators. Relative Effectiveness of High Dose vs. Standard Dose Influenza Vaccines in Older Adult Outpatients: US Flu VE Network 2015-2018 Influenza Seasons. Vaccine, 2020, Sep. 29; 38(42): 6562-6569. PMID: 32800465.


Balasubramani G.K., Mary Patricia Nowalk, Theresa M. Sax, Joe Suyama, Charles Rinaldo, Jr, Emily T. Martin, Arnold S. Monto, Michael L. Jackson, Manjusha J. Gaglani, Brendan Flannery, Jessie R. Chung, Richard K. Zimmerman: Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness among Outpatients in the U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network by Study Site 2011-2016. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. 2020; 14(4): 380-390. PMID: 32298048.


Silveira FP, Saul M, Nowalk MP, Saul S, Sax TM, Eng H, Zimmerman RK, Balasubramani G.K. Determination of Eligibility for Influenza Research: A Clinical Informatics Approach. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 10;6(6):ofz231. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofz231. PMID: 31205975. 


Balasubramani G.K.,  Sean Saul, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Donald B. Middleton, Jill Ferdinands, Richard K. Zimmerman: Does Influenza vaccination status change physician ordering patterns for respiratory viral panels? Inspection for selection bias. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics. 2019; 15(1): 91-96. PMID: 30130438.


Nowalk, M.P., Balasubramani G.K., Zimmerman, R.K., Todd M. Bear, Theresa Sax, Heather Eng, Michael Susick, Samantha E. Ford: Influenza Vaccine Intention after a medically attended acute respiratory infection. The U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network, Pittsburgh Site. Health Promotion Practice. 2019; 20(4): 539-552. PMID:30005579. 


Zimmerman RK, Balasubramani G.K., Nowalk MP, Eng H, Urbanski L, Jackson ML, Jackson LA, McLean HQ, Belongia EA, Monto AS, Malosh RE, Gaglani M, Clipper L, Flannery B, Wisniewski SR. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis to predict influenza in primary care patients. BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 22;16(1):503. PMID: 27659721.


Zimmerman RK, Rinaldo CR, Nowalk MP, Balasubramani G.K., Moehling KK, Bullotta A, Eng HF, Raviotta JM, Sax TM, Wisniewski S. Viral infections in outpatients with medically attended acute respiratory illness during the 2012-2013 influenza season. BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Feb 22;15(1):87. PMID:25887948.


Nowalk MP, Balasubramani G.K., Schaffer M, Lieberman M, Eng H, Kyle S, Wisniewski S, Zimmerman RK, Middleton DB. Intention to receive influenza vaccine after an acute respiratory illness. Am J Health Behav. 2015Jul; 39(4): 573-581. PMID:26018106.


Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Research


Tony Realini, Hazel Shillingford-Ricketts, Darra Burt, Balasubramani GK.. Long-Term Outcomes of Slective Laser Trabeculoplasty for Open-Angle Glaucoma in the Caribbean. Am J Ophthamology. 2021 June 18: S0002-9394(21)00334-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2021.06.012. PMID: 34153267.


Realini T, McMillan B, Gross RL, Devience E, Balasubramani GK. Assessing the Reliability of Intraocular Pressure Measurements Using Rebound Tonometry. J Glaucoma. 2021 Aug 1; 30(8): 629-633. doi: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001892. PMID: 34049350.


Tony Realini, Hazel Shillingford-Ricketts, Darra Burt, Balasubramani GK.: Clinical Outcomes following Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty in Afro-Caribbean Glaucoma Patients at High Risk for Progression. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2021 Apr 9:bjophthalmol-2020-317117. doi: 10.1136/ bjophthalmol-2020-317117. PMID: 33836987.


Syril K. Dorairaj, Balasubramani G.K.: Corneal Endothelial Cell Changes after Phacoemulsification Combined with Excisional Goniotomy with the Kahook Dual Blade or iStent: A Prospective Fellow-Eye Comparison. Clinical Ophthalmology. 2020; Vol.14: 4047-4053. PMID: 33262569.


Dorairaj, Syril, Tam, Mai Dang, Balasubramani GK. Two-Year Clinical Outcomes of Combined Phacoemulsification, Goniosynechialysis, and Excisional Goniotomy for Angle-Closure.  The Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology; 2020, October 06, doi: 10.1097/APO.0000000000000321. PMID:33031110.


Falkenberry S, Singh IP, Crane CJ, Haider MA, Morgan MG, Grenier CP, Brubaker  JW, Balasubramani G.K., Dorairaj S. Excisional goniotomy vs trabecular microbypass stent implantation: A prospective randomized clinical trial in eyes with mild to moderate open-angle glaucoma. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. 2020; 46(8): 1165-1171. PMID: 32358417.


Tony Realini, Hazel Shillingford, -Ricketts, Darra Burt, Balasubramani G.K.: West Indies Glaucoma Laser Study (WIGLS) 4. Crystalline Lens Changes following Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty in Afro-Caribbeans with Open-Angle Glaucoma. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. 2019, vol.45 (10); 1458-1462. PMID: 31564319.


Syril Dorairaj, Mai Dang Tam, Balasubramani G.K.: Twelve-Month outcomes of excisional goniotomy using the Kahook Dual Blade in eyes with angle-closure glaucoma. Clinical Ophthalmology. 2019, Vol.13, 1779-1785. PMID:31571816.


Tony Realini, Hazel Shillingford Ricketts, Darra Burt, Balasubramani G.K.: West Indies Glaucoma Laser Study (WIGLS) 3. The natural History of Anterior Chamber Inflammation following Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty in Afro-Caribbeans with Open-Angle Glaucoma. Journal of Glaucoma. 2019 Jul; 28(7): 622-625. PMID: 30921277.


Tony Realini, Hazel Shillingford, -Ricketts, Darra Burt, Balasubramani G.K.: West Indies Glaucoma Laser Study (WIGLS): Factors associated with 12-month intraocular pressure reduction following selective laser trabeculoplasty in Afro-Caribbeans with Glaucoma. Journal of Glaucoma. 2018; 27(10): 845-848. PMID:29965865.


Realini T, Shillingford-Ricketts H, Burt D, Balasubramani G.K.. West Indies Glaucoma Laser Study (WIGLS): 1. 12-Month Efficacy of Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty in Afro-Caribbeans with Glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017 Dec; 184:28-33. PMID:28962966.


Urology Research


Pascal LE, Dhir R, Balasubramani GK, Chen W, Hudson CN, Srivastava P, Green A, DeFranco DB, Yoshimura N, Wang Z. Claudin-1 down-regulation in the prostate is associated with aging and increased infiltration of inflammatory cells in BPH. American J Clinical and Experimental Urology. 2021 Feb 15;9(1):53-64. PMID: 33816694.


Pascal LE, Dhir R, Balasubramani GK, Chen W, Hudson CN, Srivastava P, Green A, DeFranco DB, Yoshimura N, Wang Z. E-cadherin expression is inversely correlated with aging and inflammation in the prostate. American J Clinical and Experimental Urology. 2021 Feb 15;9(1):140-149. PMID: 33816702.


Wang K, Pascal LE, Li F, Chen W, Dhir R, Balasubramani G.K., DeFranco DB, Yoshimura N, He D, Wang Z. Tight junction protein claudin-1 is downregulated by TGF-β1 via MEK signaling in benign prostatic epithelial cells. The Prostate. 2020 Jul 21. doi: 10.1002/pros.24046. PMID: 32692865.


Feng Li, Laura E Pascal, Ke Wang, Yibin Zhou, Balasubramani G.K., Katherine J O’Malley, Rajiv Dhir, Kai He, Donna Stolz, Donald B DeFranco, Naoki Yoshimura, Joel B Nelson, Tie Chong, Peng Guo, Dalin He, and Zhou Wang. Transforming growth factor beta 1 impairs benign prostatic luminal epithelial cell monolayer barrier function, Am J Clin Exp Urol. 2020; 8(1): 9–17.  Published online 2020 Feb 25. PMID: 32211449. PMCID: PMC7076294.


Song Q, Qin S, Pascal LE, Zou C, Wang W, Tong H, Zhang J, Catalona WJ, Dhir R, Morrell M, Balasubramani G.K., Lu Y, Wang Z. : SIRPB1 promotes prostate cancer cell proliferation via Akt activation. The Prostate. 2020 Mar;80(4):352-364. PMID: 31905248.


Li F, Pascal LE, Stolz DB, Wang K, Zhou Y, Chen W, Xu Y, Chen Y, Dhir R, Parwani AV, Nelson JB, DeFranco DB, Yoshimura N, Balasubramani G.K., Gingrich JR, Maranchie JK, Jacobs BL, Davies BJ, Hrebinko RL, Bigley JD, McBride D, Guo P, He D, Wang Z. E-cadherin is downregulated in benign prostatic hyperplasia and required for tight junction formation and permeability barrier in the prostatic epithelial cell monolayer. The Prostate. 2019 Aug; 79(11): 1226-1237. PMID: 31212363.


Cancer Research


Rodríguez-López JL, Patel AK, Balasubramani GK, Glaser SM, Beriwal S, Vargo JA. Treatment selection and survival outcomes in Early-Stage peripheral T-Cell lymphomas: does anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutation impact the benefit of consolidative radiotherapy?. Leukemia and Lymphoma. 2021 march; 62(3): 538-548. PMID: 33251899.


Schad MD, Patel AK, Glaser SM, Balasubramani G.K., Showalter TN, Beriwal S, Vargo JA.: Declining brachytherapy utilization for cervical cancer patients - Have we reversed the trend? Gynecol Oncol. 2020; 156(3): 583-590. PMID: 31924333.


Glaser SM, Kalash R, Bongiorni DR, Roberts MS, Balasubramani G.K., Jacobs BL, Beriwal S, Heron DE, Greenberger JS. Challenges in the Analysis of Outcomes for Surgical Compared to Radiotherapy Treatment of Prostate Cancer. In Vivo. 2018 Jan-Feb;32(1):113-120. PMID:29275307.


Michael J Dohopolski, Scott M Glaser, John A Vargo, Balasubramani G.K., Sushil Beriwal: Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Locally advanced Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer – Patterns of Care and Overall Survival. Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology. 2017 Oct; 8(5):766-777. PMID: 29184680.


Chapman BV, Gill BS, Viswanathan AN, Balasubramani G.K., Sukumvanich P, Beriwal S: Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Margin-Positive Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Defining the Ideal Dose-Response Using the National Cancer Data Base. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 Jan 1;97(1):107-117. PMID: 27843030.


Glaser SM, Dohopolski MJ, Balasubramani G.K., Benoit RM, Smith RP, Beriwal S. Brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer: Trends in care and survival outcomes. Brachytherapy. 2017 Mar-Apr; 16(2): 330-341. PMID: 28159553.


John A. Vargo, Arisha Patel, Scott M Glaser, Balasubramani G.K., Rafic J Farah, Stanley M Marks, Sushil Beriwal: The impact of the omission or Inadequate dosing of radiotherapy in Extra-Nodal Natural Killer T-cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type in the United States. Cancer. 2017 Aug 15; 123(16):3176-3185. PMID:28380259.


Vargo JA, Ghareeb ER, Balasubramani G.K., Beriwal S. RE: Adjuvant Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Survival Analyses of 6908 Cases From the National Cancer Data Base. Journal of National Cancer Institute 2017 Oct 1;109(10). PMID: 28423400.


Glaser SM, Dohopolski MJ, Balasubramani G.K., Flickinger JC, Beriwal S.: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in the elderly: initial treatment strategy and overall survival. J Neurooncol. 2017 Aug; 134(1): 107-118. PMID: 28527010.


Psychiatry Research


Thase ME, McCrone P, Barrett MS, Eells TD, Wisniewski SR, Balasubramani G.K., Brown GK, Wright JH. Improving Cost-effectiveness and Access to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depression: Providing Remote-Ready, Computer-Assisted Psychotherapy in Times of Crisis and Beyond. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 2020; 89(5): 307-313. PMID: 32396917.


Thase ME, Wright JH, Eells TD, Barrett MS, Wisniewski SR, Balasubramani G.K., McCrone P, Brown GK.: Improving the Efficiency of Psychotherapy for Depression: Computer-Assisted Versus Standard CBT. Am J Psychiatry. 2017 Oct 3: PMID:28969439.


Madhukar H.Trivedi, A.John Rush, Stephen R.Wisniewski,  Andrew A. Nierenberg, Diane Warden,  Louise Ritz, Grayson Norquist, Robert H. Howland,  Barry Lebowitz,  Patrick J. McGrath, Kathy Shores-Wilson, Melanie M.Biggs, Balasubramani G.K., Maurizio Fava, for the STAR*D study team. Evaluation of outcomes with Citalopram for depression using measurement based care in STAR*D: Implications for clinical research and practice. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2006; 163(1), 28-40. PMID: 16390886.

Methods Research


Balasubramani G.K., Stephen R.Wisniewski, Hongwei Zhang, Heather F. Eng: Development of an efficient SAS Macro to perform permutation test for two independent samples. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 2005; 79(2), 179-187. PMID: 15904990.


Suresh Chandra, K., Sampath,S, Balasubramani G.K.: Markov sampling for finite population. 1992; Biometrika, 79(1), 210-213.



Balasubramani  K Goundappa