Presenter: Fan Wu
Paper: Influence of Environment and Lifestyle on Incidence and Progress of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in A German ALS Population
Authors: Sonja Korner, Johanna Kammeyer, Antonia Zapf, Magdalena Kuzma-Kozakiewicz, Maria
Piotrkiewicz, Bożenna Kuraszkiewicz, Hanna Goszczynska, Marta Gromicho, Julian
Grosskreutz, Peter M. Andersen, Mamede de Carvalho, Susanne Petri
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease mainly affecting upper and
lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Pathogenesis of ALS is still unclear, and a multifactorial etiology is presumed. The remarkable clinical heterogeneity between different phenotypes of ALS patients suggests that environmental and lifestyle factors could play a role in onset and progression of ALS. We analyzed a cohort of 117 ALS patients and 93 controls. ALS patients and controls were compared regarding physical activity, dietary habits, smoking, residential environment, potentially toxic environmental factors and profession before symptom onset and throughout the disease course. Data were collected by a personal interview. For statistical analysis descriptive statistics, statistical tests and analysis of variance were used. ALS patients and controls did not differ regarding smoking, diet and extent of physical training. No higher frequency of toxic influences could be detected in the ALS group. ALS patients lived in rural environment considerably more often than the control persons, but this was not associated with a higher percentage of occupation in agriculture. There was also a higher percentage of university graduates in the ALS group. Patients with bulbar onset were considerably more often born in an urban environment as compared to spinal onset. Apart from education and environment, ALS phenotypes did not differ in any investigated environmental or life-style factor. The rate of disease progression was not influenced by any of the investigated environmental and life-style factors. The present study could not identify any dietary habit, smoking, physical activity, occupational factor as well as toxic influences as risk factor or protective factor for onset or progression of ALS. Living in rural environment and higher education might be associated with higher incidence of ALS.
The Department of Environmental and Occupational Health presents:
“Zinc homeostasis in the lung in health and disease”
Bruce R. Pitt, PhD
Professor, Environmental and Occupational Health
Professor, Pharmacology and Chemical Biology
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health
Graduate School of Public Health
University of Pittsburgh
Friday, January 31, 2020
1:00 pm – 2:00 pm
Conference Room 1155 - Public Health
Presented by Beth L. Roman, associate professor of human genetics, member of the Heart, Lung, and Blood Vascular Medicine Institute, and basic research director, HHT Center.
Presenter: Jenna Kuhn
Paper: Organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos intake promotes obesity and insulin resistance through impacting gut and gut microbiota
Authors: Yiran Liang, Jing Zhan, Donghui Liu, Mai Luo, Jiajun Han, Xueke Liu, Chang Liu, Zheng Cheng, Zhiqiang Zhou, and Peng Wang
Disruption of the gut microbiota homeostasis may induce low-grade inflammation leading to obesity-associated diseases. A major protective mechanism is to use the multi-layered mucus structures to keep a safe distance between gut epithelial cells and microbiota. To investigate whether pesticides would induce insulin resistance/obesity through interfering with mucus-bacterial interactions, we conducted a study to determine how long-term exposure to chlorpyrifos affected C57Bl/6 and CD-1 (ICR) mice fed high- or normal-fat diets. To further investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos-altered microbiota, antibiotic treatment and microbiota transplantation experiments were conducted.
The results showed that chlorpyrifos caused broken integrity of the gut barrier, leading to increased lipopolysaccharide entry into the body and finally low-grade inflammation, while genetic background and diet pattern have limited influence on the chlorpyrifos-induced results. Moreover, the mice given chlorpyrifos-altered microbiota had gained more fat and lower insulin sensitivity.
Our results suggest that widespread use of pesticides may contribute to the worldwide epidemic of inflammation-related diseases.
Presenter: Emma Yi Lu
Paper: Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Arrhythmogenic Cardiac Alternans in a Mouse Model
Authors: Zhen Wang, Lianguo Wang, Srinivas Tapa, Kent E. Pinkerton, Chao-Yin Chen, and Crystal M. Ripplinger
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests that a majority of deaths attributed to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure are cardiovascular related. However, to our knowledge, the impact of SHS on cardiac electrophysiology, Ca2þ handling, and arrhythmia risk has not been studied.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of an environmentally relevant concentration of SHS on cardiac electrophysiology and indicators of arrhythmia.
METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to SHS . Hearts were excised and Langendorﬀ perfused for dual optical mapping with voltage- and Ca2þ-sensitive dyes.
RESULTS:At slow pacing rates, SHS exposure did not alter baseline electrophysiological parameters. With increasing pacing frequency, action potential duration (APD), and intracellular Ca2þ alternans magnitude progressively increased in all groups. At 4 and 8 wk, there were no statistical diﬀerences in APD or Ca2þ alternans magnitude between SHS and FA groups. At 12 wk, both APD and Ca2þ alternans magnitude were signiﬁcantly increased in the SHS compared to FA group (p<0 :05). SHS exposure did not impact the time constant of Ca2þ transient decay (s) at any exposure time point. At 12 wk exposure, the recovery of Ca2þ transient amplitude with premature stimuli was slightly (but nonsigniﬁcantly) delayed in SHS compared to FA hearts, suggesting that Ca2þ release via ryanodine receptors may be impaired.
CONCLUSIONS: In male mice, chronic exposure to SHS at levels relevant to social situations in humans increased their susceptibility to cardiac alternans, a known precursor to ventricular arrhythmia
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Last Updated On Friday, January 11, 2019 by Orbell, Adam W
Created On Friday, January 11, 2019
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