Presenter: Brandy Hill
Paper: Ambient black carbon particles reach the fetal side of human placenta
Authors: Hannelore Bové, Eva Bongaerts, Eli Slenders, Esmée M. Bijnens, Nelly D. Saenen, Wilfried Gyselaers, Peter Van Eyken, Michelle Plusquin, Maarten B.J. Roeffaers, Marcel Ameloot & Tim S. Nawrot
Particle transfer across the placenta has been suggested but to date, no direct evidence in real-life, human context exists. Here we report the presence of black carbon (BC) particles as part of combustion-derived particulate matter in human placentae using white-light generation under femtosecond pulsed illumination. BC is identified in all screened placentae, with an average (SD) particle count of 0.95 × 104 (0.66 × 104) and 2.09 × 104 (0.9 × 104) particles per mm3 for low and high exposed mothers, respectively. Furthermore, the placental BC load is positively associated with mothers’ residential BC exposure during pregnancy (0.63 2.42 μg per m3). Our finding that BC particles accumulate on the fetal side of the placenta suggests that ambient particulates could be transported towards the fetus and represents a potential mechanism explaining the detrimental health effects of pollution from early life
Presented by Beth L. Roman, associate professor of human genetics, member of the Heart, Lung, and Blood Vascular Medicine Institute, and basic research director, HHT Center.
Date: Thursday January 26, 2017
Time: 11am - 12pm Presenter: Amrita Sahu
Paper: A single heterochronic blood exchange reveals rapid inhibition of multiple tissues by old bloodAuthors: Justin Rebo, Melod Mehdipour, Ranveer Gathwala, Keith Causey, Yan Liu, Michael J. Conboy & Irina M. Conboy
Abstract: Heterochronic parabiosis rejuvenates the performance of old tissue stem cells at some expense to the young, but whether this is through shared circulation or shared organs is unclear. Here we show that heterochronic blood exchange between young and old mice without sharing other organs, affects tissues within a few days, and leads to different outcomes than heterochronic parabiosis. Investigating muscle, liver and brain hippocampus, in the presence or absence of muscle injury, we find that, in many cases, the inhibitory effects of old blood are more pronounced than the benefits of young, and that peripheral tissue injury compounds the negative effects. We also explore mechanistic explanations, including the role of B2M and TGF-beta. We conclude that, compared with heterochronic parabiosis, heterochronic blood exchange in small animals is less invasive and enables better-controlled studies with more immediate translation to therapies for humans.
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Last Updated On Tuesday, January 17, 2017 by Orbell, Adam W
Created On Tuesday, January 17, 2017
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