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Event
Thu 9/19/2019 11:00AM - 12:00PM
EOH Journal Club
Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen EOH Journal Club
Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen
Thu 9/19/2019 11:00AM - 12:00PM
4140 Public Health, Young Seminar Room

Presenter: Brandy Hill

Paper: Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen. A Randomized, Double-Blind Crossover Study

Authors: Denise J. Wooding, Min Hyung Ryu, Anke Huls, Andrew D. Lee, David T. S. Lin, Christopher F. Rider, Agnes C. Y. Yuen, and Chris Carlsten

Abstract:
Rationale: Diesel exhaust (DE), an established model of trafficrelated
air pollution, contributes significantly to the global burden of
asthma and may augment the effects of allergen inhalation. Newer
diesel particulate-filtering technologies may increaseNO2 emissions,
raising questions regarding their effectiveness in reducing harm from
associated engine output.

Objectives: To assess the effects of DE and allergen coexposure on
lung function, airway responsiveness, and circulating leukocytes, and
determine whether DE particle depletion remediates these effects.

Methods: In this randomized, double-blind crossover study, 14
allergen-sensitized participants (9 with airway hyperresponsiveness)
underwent inhaled allergen challenge after 2-hour exposures to DE,
particle-depleted DE (PDDE), or filtered air. The control condition
was inhaled saline after filtered air. Blood sampling and spirometry
were performed before and up to 48 hours after exposures. Airway
responsiveness was evaluated at 24 hours.

Measurements and Main Results: PDDE plus allergen
coexposure impaired lung function more than DE plus allergen,
particularly in those genetically at risk. DE plus allergen and PDDE
plus allergen each increased airway responsiveness in normally
responsive participants.DEplus allergen increased blood neutrophils
and was associated with persistent eosinophilia at 48 hours. DE and
PDDE each increased total peripheral leukocyte counts in a manner
affected by participant genotypes. Changes in peripheral leukocytes
correlated with lung function decline.

Conclusions: Coexposure to DE and allergen impaired lung
function, which was worse after particle depletion (which increased
NO2). Thus, particulates are not necessarily the sole or main
culprit responsible for all harmful effects of DE. Policies and
technologies aimed at protecting public health should be scrutinized
in that regard.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02017431).

Keywords: diesel exhaust; asthma; filter; genetic susceptibility


4140 Public Health, Young Seminar Room

Recent Events

EOH Journal Club

Role of NS1 antibodies in the pathogenesis of acute secondary dengue infection

Thursday 2/14 11:00AM - 12:00PM
4140 Public Health, Young Seminar Room

Presenter: Meghan Matlack

Paper: Role of NS1 antibodies in the pathogenesis of acute secondary dengue infection

Authors:  Deshni Jayathilaka, Laksiri Gomes, Chandima Jeewandara, Geethal.S.Bandara Jayarathna, Dhanushka Herath, Pathum Asela Perera, Samitha Fernando, Ananda Wijewickrama, Clare S. Hardman, Graham S. Ogg & Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige

Abstract:
The role of NS1-specific antibodies in the pathogenesis of dengue virus infection is poorly understood. Here we investigate the immunoglobulin responses of patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) to NS1. Antibody responses to recombinant-NS1 are assessed in serum samples throughout illness of patients with acute secondary DENV1 and DENV2 infection by ELISA. NS1 antibody titres are significantly higher in patients with DHF compared to those with DF for both serotypes, during the critical phase of illness. Furthermore, during both acute secondary DENV1 and DENV2 infection, the antibody repertoire of DF and DHF patients is directed towards distinct regions of the NS1 protein. In addition, healthy individuals, with past non-severe dengue infection have a similar antibody repertoire as those with mild acute infection (DF). Therefore, antibodies that target specific NS1 epitopes could predict disease severity and be of potential benefit in aiding vaccine and treatment design.


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Last Updated On Friday, January 11, 2019 by Orbell, Adam W
Created On Friday, January 11, 2019

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