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Thu 9/19/2019 11:00AM - 12:00PM
EOH Journal Club
Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen EOH Journal Club
Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen
Thu 9/19/2019 11:00AM - 12:00PM
4140 Public Health, Young Seminar Room

Presenter: Brandy Hill

Paper: Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen. A Randomized, Double-Blind Crossover Study

Authors: Denise J. Wooding, Min Hyung Ryu, Anke Huls, Andrew D. Lee, David T. S. Lin, Christopher F. Rider, Agnes C. Y. Yuen, and Chris Carlsten

Abstract:
Rationale: Diesel exhaust (DE), an established model of trafficrelated
air pollution, contributes significantly to the global burden of
asthma and may augment the effects of allergen inhalation. Newer
diesel particulate-filtering technologies may increaseNO2 emissions,
raising questions regarding their effectiveness in reducing harm from
associated engine output.

Objectives: To assess the effects of DE and allergen coexposure on
lung function, airway responsiveness, and circulating leukocytes, and
determine whether DE particle depletion remediates these effects.

Methods: In this randomized, double-blind crossover study, 14
allergen-sensitized participants (9 with airway hyperresponsiveness)
underwent inhaled allergen challenge after 2-hour exposures to DE,
particle-depleted DE (PDDE), or filtered air. The control condition
was inhaled saline after filtered air. Blood sampling and spirometry
were performed before and up to 48 hours after exposures. Airway
responsiveness was evaluated at 24 hours.

Measurements and Main Results: PDDE plus allergen
coexposure impaired lung function more than DE plus allergen,
particularly in those genetically at risk. DE plus allergen and PDDE
plus allergen each increased airway responsiveness in normally
responsive participants.DEplus allergen increased blood neutrophils
and was associated with persistent eosinophilia at 48 hours. DE and
PDDE each increased total peripheral leukocyte counts in a manner
affected by participant genotypes. Changes in peripheral leukocytes
correlated with lung function decline.

Conclusions: Coexposure to DE and allergen impaired lung
function, which was worse after particle depletion (which increased
NO2). Thus, particulates are not necessarily the sole or main
culprit responsible for all harmful effects of DE. Policies and
technologies aimed at protecting public health should be scrutinized
in that regard.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02017431).

Keywords: diesel exhaust; asthma; filter; genetic susceptibility


4140 Public Health, Young Seminar Room

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EOH Journal Club

Toll-like Receptor 4 Pathway Polymorphisms Interact with Pollution to Influence Asthma Diagnosis and

Thursday 1/31 11:00AM - 12:00PM
4140 Public Health, Young Seminar Room

Presenter: Brandy Hill

Paper: Toll-like Receptor 4 Pathway Polymorphisms Interact with Pollution to Influence Asthma Diagnosis and Severity

Authors: Shepherd H. Schurman, Mercedes A. Bravo, Cynthia L. Innes, W. Braxton Jackson, II, John A. McGrath, Marie Lynn Miranda, and Stavros Garantziotis

Abstract:
Asthma is a common chronic lung disease, the incidence and severity of which may be influenced by gene-environment interactions. Our objective was to examine associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and combinations of SNPs in the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway, residential distance to roadway as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution exposure, and asthma diagnosis and exacerbations. We obtained individual-level data on genotype, residential address, and asthma diagnosis and exacerbations from the Environmental Polymorphisms Registry. Subjects (n = 2,704) were divided into three groups (hyper-responders, hypo-responders, and neither) based on SNP combinations in genes along the TLR4 pathway. We geocoded subjects and calculated distance, classified as <250 m or ≥250 m, between residence and nearest major road. Relationships between genotype, distance to road, and odds of asthma diagnosis and exacerbations were examined using logistic regression. Odds of an asthma diagnosis among hyper-responders <250 m from a major road was 2.37(0.97, 6.01) compared to the reference group (p < 0.10). Hypo-responders ≥250 m from the nearest road had lower odds of activity limitations (0.46 [0.21, 0.95]) and sleeplessness (0.36 [0.12, 0.91]) compared to neither-responders (p < 0.05). Specific genotype combinations when combined with an individual’s proximity to roadways, possibly due to traffic-related air pollution exposure, may affect the likelihood of asthma diagnosis and exacerbations.

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Last Updated On Friday, January 04, 2019 by Orbell, Adam W
Created On Friday, January 04, 2019

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