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Event
Thu 9/19/2019 11:00AM - 12:00PM
EOH Journal Club
Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen EOH Journal Club
Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen
Thu 9/19/2019 11:00AM - 12:00PM
4140 Public Health, Young Seminar Room

Presenter: Brandy Hill

Paper: Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen. A Randomized, Double-Blind Crossover Study

Authors: Denise J. Wooding, Min Hyung Ryu, Anke Huls, Andrew D. Lee, David T. S. Lin, Christopher F. Rider, Agnes C. Y. Yuen, and Chris Carlsten

Abstract:
Rationale: Diesel exhaust (DE), an established model of trafficrelated
air pollution, contributes significantly to the global burden of
asthma and may augment the effects of allergen inhalation. Newer
diesel particulate-filtering technologies may increaseNO2 emissions,
raising questions regarding their effectiveness in reducing harm from
associated engine output.

Objectives: To assess the effects of DE and allergen coexposure on
lung function, airway responsiveness, and circulating leukocytes, and
determine whether DE particle depletion remediates these effects.

Methods: In this randomized, double-blind crossover study, 14
allergen-sensitized participants (9 with airway hyperresponsiveness)
underwent inhaled allergen challenge after 2-hour exposures to DE,
particle-depleted DE (PDDE), or filtered air. The control condition
was inhaled saline after filtered air. Blood sampling and spirometry
were performed before and up to 48 hours after exposures. Airway
responsiveness was evaluated at 24 hours.

Measurements and Main Results: PDDE plus allergen
coexposure impaired lung function more than DE plus allergen,
particularly in those genetically at risk. DE plus allergen and PDDE
plus allergen each increased airway responsiveness in normally
responsive participants.DEplus allergen increased blood neutrophils
and was associated with persistent eosinophilia at 48 hours. DE and
PDDE each increased total peripheral leukocyte counts in a manner
affected by participant genotypes. Changes in peripheral leukocytes
correlated with lung function decline.

Conclusions: Coexposure to DE and allergen impaired lung
function, which was worse after particle depletion (which increased
NO2). Thus, particulates are not necessarily the sole or main
culprit responsible for all harmful effects of DE. Policies and
technologies aimed at protecting public health should be scrutinized
in that regard.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02017431).

Keywords: diesel exhaust; asthma; filter; genetic susceptibility


4140 Public Health, Young Seminar Room

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EOH Journal Club

Extracellular Vesicles Provide a Means for Tissue Crosstalk during Exercise

Thursday 10/25 11:00AM - 12:00PM
Presenter: Amrita Sahu

Paper: Extracellular Vesicles Provide a Means for Tissue Crosstalk during Exercise

Authors: Martin Whitham, Benjamin L. Parker, Martin Friedrichsen, ..., David E. James, Jørgen F.P. Wojtaszewski, Mark A. Febbraio

Abstract: Exercise stimulates the release of molecules into the circulation, supporting the concept that inter-tissue signaling proteins are important mediators of adaptations to exercise. Recognizing that many circulating proteins are packaged in extracellular vesicles (EVs), we employed quantitative proteomic techniques to characterize the exercise-induced secretion of EV-contained proteins. Following a 1-hr bout of cycling exercise in healthy humans, we observed an increase in the circulation of over 300 proteins, with a notable enrichment of several classes of proteins that compose exosomes and small vesicles. Pulse-chase and intravital imaging experiments suggested EVs liberated by exercise have a propensity to localize in the liver and can transfer their protein cargo. Moreover, by employing arteriovenous balance studies across the contracting human limb, we identified several novel candidate myokines, released into circulation independently of classical secretion. These data identify a new paradigm by which tissue crosstalk during exercise can exert systemic biological effects.

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Last Updated On Monday, October 22, 2018 by Orbell, Adam W
Created On Friday, September 21, 2018

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