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Thu 9/19/2019 11:00AM - 12:00PM
EOH Journal Club
Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen EOH Journal Club
Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen
Thu 9/19/2019 11:00AM - 12:00PM
4140 Public Health, Young Seminar Room

Presenter: Brandy Hill

Paper: Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen. A Randomized, Double-Blind Crossover Study

Authors: Denise J. Wooding, Min Hyung Ryu, Anke Huls, Andrew D. Lee, David T. S. Lin, Christopher F. Rider, Agnes C. Y. Yuen, and Chris Carlsten

Abstract:
Rationale: Diesel exhaust (DE), an established model of trafficrelated
air pollution, contributes significantly to the global burden of
asthma and may augment the effects of allergen inhalation. Newer
diesel particulate-filtering technologies may increaseNO2 emissions,
raising questions regarding their effectiveness in reducing harm from
associated engine output.

Objectives: To assess the effects of DE and allergen coexposure on
lung function, airway responsiveness, and circulating leukocytes, and
determine whether DE particle depletion remediates these effects.

Methods: In this randomized, double-blind crossover study, 14
allergen-sensitized participants (9 with airway hyperresponsiveness)
underwent inhaled allergen challenge after 2-hour exposures to DE,
particle-depleted DE (PDDE), or filtered air. The control condition
was inhaled saline after filtered air. Blood sampling and spirometry
were performed before and up to 48 hours after exposures. Airway
responsiveness was evaluated at 24 hours.

Measurements and Main Results: PDDE plus allergen
coexposure impaired lung function more than DE plus allergen,
particularly in those genetically at risk. DE plus allergen and PDDE
plus allergen each increased airway responsiveness in normally
responsive participants.DEplus allergen increased blood neutrophils
and was associated with persistent eosinophilia at 48 hours. DE and
PDDE each increased total peripheral leukocyte counts in a manner
affected by participant genotypes. Changes in peripheral leukocytes
correlated with lung function decline.

Conclusions: Coexposure to DE and allergen impaired lung
function, which was worse after particle depletion (which increased
NO2). Thus, particulates are not necessarily the sole or main
culprit responsible for all harmful effects of DE. Policies and
technologies aimed at protecting public health should be scrutinized
in that regard.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02017431).

Keywords: diesel exhaust; asthma; filter; genetic susceptibility


4140 Public Health, Young Seminar Room

Recent Events

EOH Journal Club

EOH Journal Club - Spring 2018 - Shuo Cao

Thursday 4/12 11:00AM - 12:00PM
4140 Public Health, Young Seminar Room
EOH Journal Club Seminar - Spring 2018

Date: Thursday April 12, 2018

Time: 11am - 12pm

Presenter: Shuo Cao

Paper: Inactivating mutations and hypermethylation of the NKX2-1/TTF-1 gene in non-terminal respiratory unit-type lung adenocarcinomas

Authors: Matsubara D, Soda M, Yoshimoto T, Amano Y, Sakuma Y, Yamato A, Ueno T, Kojima S, Shibano T, Hosono Y, Kawazu M, Yamashita Y, Endo S, Hagiwara K, Fukayama M, Takahashi T, Mano H, Niki T.

Abstract: The major driver mutations of lung cancer, EGFR mutations and EML4-ALK fusion, are mainly detected in terminal respiratory unit (TRU)-type lung adenocarcinomas, which typically show lepidic and/or papillary patterns, but are rarely associated with a solid or invasive mucinous morphology. In order to elucidate the key genetic events in non-TRU-type lung cancer, we carried out whole-exome sequencing on 43 non-TRU-type lung adenocarcinomas based on morphology (17 acinar, nine solid, and two enteric adenocarcinomas, and 15 adenocarcinomas with a mucinous morphology). Our analysis identified mutations in TP53 (16/43, 37.2%), KRAS (13/43, 30.2%), and NKX2-1/TTF-1 (7/43; 16.3%) as the top three significantly mutated genes, while the EGFR mutation was rare (1/43, 2.3%) in this cohort. Eight NKX2-1/TTF-1 mutations (five frameshift, two nonsense, and one missense) were identified, with one case harboring two distinct NKX2-1/TTF-1 mutations (one missense and one frameshift). Functional assays with the NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1)/thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) mutants revealed that none of them retain the activity as a transcriptional factor. Histologically, invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas accounted for most of the NKX2-1/TTF-1 mutations (five cases), as well as one enteric and one acinar adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed that the cohort was largely divided into TTF-1-postive/hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-α (HNF4-α)-negative and TTF-1-negative/HNF4-α-positive groups. NKX2-1/TTF-1 mutations were exclusively found in the latter, in which the gastrointestinal markers, mucin 5AC and cytokeratin 20, were frequently expressed. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that the NKX2-1/TTF-1 gene body was highly methylated in NKX2-1/TTF-1-negative cases, including those without the NKX2-1/TTF-1 mutations. The genetic or epigenetic inactivation of NKX2-1/TTF-1 may play an essential role in the development and aberrant differentiation of non-TRU-type lung adenocarcinomas.

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Last Updated On Monday, March 19, 2018 by Orbell, Adam W
Created On Thursday, February 22, 2018

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