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Thu 9/19/2019 11:00AM - 12:00PM
EOH Journal Club
Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen EOH Journal Club
Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen
Thu 9/19/2019 11:00AM - 12:00PM
4140 Public Health, Young Seminar Room

Presenter: Brandy Hill

Paper: Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Allergen. A Randomized, Double-Blind Crossover Study

Authors: Denise J. Wooding, Min Hyung Ryu, Anke Huls, Andrew D. Lee, David T. S. Lin, Christopher F. Rider, Agnes C. Y. Yuen, and Chris Carlsten

Rationale: Diesel exhaust (DE), an established model of trafficrelated
air pollution, contributes significantly to the global burden of
asthma and may augment the effects of allergen inhalation. Newer
diesel particulate-filtering technologies may increaseNO2 emissions,
raising questions regarding their effectiveness in reducing harm from
associated engine output.

Objectives: To assess the effects of DE and allergen coexposure on
lung function, airway responsiveness, and circulating leukocytes, and
determine whether DE particle depletion remediates these effects.

Methods: In this randomized, double-blind crossover study, 14
allergen-sensitized participants (9 with airway hyperresponsiveness)
underwent inhaled allergen challenge after 2-hour exposures to DE,
particle-depleted DE (PDDE), or filtered air. The control condition
was inhaled saline after filtered air. Blood sampling and spirometry
were performed before and up to 48 hours after exposures. Airway
responsiveness was evaluated at 24 hours.

Measurements and Main Results: PDDE plus allergen
coexposure impaired lung function more than DE plus allergen,
particularly in those genetically at risk. DE plus allergen and PDDE
plus allergen each increased airway responsiveness in normally
responsive participants.DEplus allergen increased blood neutrophils
and was associated with persistent eosinophilia at 48 hours. DE and
PDDE each increased total peripheral leukocyte counts in a manner
affected by participant genotypes. Changes in peripheral leukocytes
correlated with lung function decline.

Conclusions: Coexposure to DE and allergen impaired lung
function, which was worse after particle depletion (which increased
NO2). Thus, particulates are not necessarily the sole or main
culprit responsible for all harmful effects of DE. Policies and
technologies aimed at protecting public health should be scrutinized
in that regard.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02017431).

Keywords: diesel exhaust; asthma; filter; genetic susceptibility

4140 Public Health, Young Seminar Room

Recent Events

EOH Journal Club

EOH Journal Club - Fall 2017 - Travis Lear

Thursday 9/21 11:00AM - 12:00PM
EOH Journal Club Seminar - Fall 2017

Date: Thursday September 21, 2017

Time: 11am - 12pm

Presenter: Travis Lear

Paper: Opposing effects of cancer-type-specific SPOP mutants on BET protein degradation and sensitivity to BET inhibitors

Authors: Hana Janouskova, Geniver El Tekle, Elisa Bellini, Namrata D Udeshi, Anna Rinaldi,
Anna Ulbricht, Tiziano Bernasocchi, Gianluca Civenni, Marco Losa, Tanya Svinkina,
Craig M Bielski, Gregory V Kryukov, Luciano Cascione, Sara Napoli, Radoslav I Enchev,
David G Mutch, Michael E Carney, Andrew Berchuck, Boris J N Winterhoff, Russell R Broaddus,
Peter Schram, Holger Moch, Francesco Bertoni, Carlo V Catapano, Matthias Peter, Steven A Carr,
Levi A Garraway, Peter J Wild & Jean-Philippe P Theurillat

Abstract: It is generally assumed that recurrent mutations within a given cancer driver gene elicit similar drug responses. Cancer genome studies have identified recurrent but divergent missense mutations affecting the substrate-recognition domain of the ubiquitin ligase adaptor SPOP in endometrial and prostate cancers. The therapeutic implications of these mutations remain incompletely understood. Here we analyzed changes in the ubiquitin landscape induced by endometrial cancer–associated SPOP mutations and identified BRD2, BRD3 and BRD4 proteins (BETs) as SPOP–CUL3 substrates that are preferentially degraded by endometrial cancer–associated SPOP mutants. The resulting reduction of BET protein levels sensitized cancer cells to BET inhibitors. Conversely, prostate cancer–specific SPOP mutations resulted in impaired degradation of BETs, promoting their resistance to pharmacologic inhibition. These results uncover an oncogenomics paradox, whereby mutations mapping to the same domain evoke opposing drug susceptibilities. Specifically, we provide a molecular rationale for the use of BET inhibitors to treat patients with endometrial but not prostate cancer who harbor SPOP mutations.

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Last Updated On Tuesday, September 12, 2017 by Orbell, Adam W
Created On Tuesday, September 12, 2017

AugSeptember 2019Oct

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